In our country today comprehensive reforms are carried out in the political, legal, socio-economic and cultural-educational spheres and as a result of them special attention is paid at the state level to the development of legal consciousness and legal culture.

Of course, only if citizens have a high level of legal knowledge, consciousness and culture, they will be able to actively respond to changes in social life, express their personal views and contribute to the development of society.

In turn, improving the legal culture is directly related to reforming of the state and society, critical analysis of existing legislation, making appropriate changes to them in accordance with the requirements of the time and the elimination of outdated norms that barrier to development.

The study of changes in the legal consciousness and legal culture of the population and the relevant sociological research will help to prevent potential problems in these areas and allows the implementation of targeted measures as the Republic of Uzbekistan is going through a period of comprehensive reforms in the political, legal, socio-economic and cultural spheres.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On Radical Improvement of the System of Raising Legal Consciousness and Legal Culture in Society” (No.PF-5618, January 9, 2019) and Resolution “On Additional Measures to Ensure the Constitution and the Rule of Law, Strengthening Public Control and Raising Legal Culture in Society” (No.PP-455, december 13, 2019) identified urgent tasks to raise legal consciousness and legal culture.

In order to ensure the implementation of these tasks, to increase the legal consciousness and legal culture of citizens in society, Research Institute of Legal Policy under the Ministry of Justice conducts surveys on “Raising Legal Consciousness and Legal Culture in Society: Current Challenges and Success Factors”.

In particular, Research Institute of Legal Policy in cooperation with regional justice agencies conducted sociological researches on “Current Issues of Raising Legal Consciousness and Legal Culture in Society” in June-September 2019 and “Legal Consciousness and Legal Raising Culture: Current Challenges and Factors for Success ” in July-November 2020.

In 2019, the survey was conducted among 1,871 respondents in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, all regions and the city of Tashkent. The survey was conducted on a selective basis in each administrative-territorial unit on the “principle of the center and four districts”. About 22-25 respondents were participated in each local unit. Respondents were selected in terms of age and gender that reflecting the demographic situation in Uzbekistan.

In particular, 50.7% of respondents were men and 49.3% were women; by place of residence, 54.4% were urban people and 45.6% were rural people. Respectively, 28.6% were 18 to 20 years old, 30.3% were 21 to 30 years old, 16.5% were 31 to 40 years old, 13.6% were 41 to 50 years old and 11% were over 51 years old. By education 12,6 % of respondents had secondary education, 44.7% had secondary special education, 42% had higher education and 0.6% had academic degree.

For information: in 2020, this figure was 48.6% of men and 51.4% of women by gender; by location, 56.7% was urban and 43.3% are rural; by age, 11.4% were 18 to 20 years old, 27.4% were 21 to 30 years old, 24.7% were 31 to 40 years old, 23.6% were 41 to 50 years old and 12.7% were over 51 years old; according to the data, 18% were secondary, 46% were secondary special, 35% were highly educated and 1% had academic degrees.

According to the survey in 2019, to the question “By what means do you know more about legal news in our country?”: 46.6% of respondents took part in the survey on television, 33.1% on the Internet, 7.5% on social networks, 7.3% on the telegram channel “Legal Information”, 2.8% in print mass-media, 2.2% radio, and 0.6% from other sources: (data in the form of graphics):

It can be seen that awareness of legal information on television has been higher among the population.

The 2020 survey also asked, the question “By what means do you know more about legal news?” 53% of respondents on television, 26.8% on informal Internet sources (social networks, sites, forums), 11.5% on the Internet, 2.9% from print mass-media, 2.0% on radio, 0.8% on official Internet sources (official channels, sites) and 0.4% reported to be aware of other sources:

From the data which is given above, it can be concluded that awareness of legal information through television is growing from year to year, forming a high rate among the population.

The surveys also take into account important processes in 2020. For example, what would you do if you witnessed a wedding ceremony with more than 30 people in your neighborhood during a pandemic? 34.0% of respondents answered that explain to wedding owners about the dangers of holding a large-scale event during pandemic period, 5.9% inform employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs about the wedding ceremony, 14.6% inform the local self-government body (neighborhood), 18.0% said they do not pay attention to the situation and 26.0% said it is difficult to respond.

These figures show that despite the fact that the coronavirus pandemic is leaving its mark on the world, people of Uzbekistan remain committed to the importance of legal knowledge and skills, as well as the priority of the rule of law.

The level of legal consciousness and legal culture is dynamic in nature, with a certain amount of renewal every 3-4 years. At the same time, if some shortcomings in this area are identified and eliminated in  time, it is possible to further strengthen the rule of law in our country in a relatively short period of time.

In conclusion, every citizen needs legal literacy not only to avoid liability, but also, above all, to protect their rights, to enjoy the additional benefits provided by law or to conscientiously fulfill their obligations before society and the state. That is, it is not the fear of the law as an incentive to acquire legal knowledge, but the motivation to know it that benefits more for the development of society and the state.

Ensuring the rights of citizens to legal information through legal advocacy is not only a condition for their conscious and active participation in public life, but also, the formation of their well-being, common culture and crime prevention, peace in society and interpersonal relations, building equal cooperation, that is in a word, a condition that formation for a society that has spiritual harmonious, fair and a high legal culture.

Sardor Turdikulov,
Research Institute of Legal Policy
under the Ministry of Justice

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